'It’s a reminder that listening is just as important as talking'
The Great Margin began its life as a project that aimed to raise the voice of people writing from the fringes of experience. As we moved towards the conclusion of the project, we settled on the title ‘Bulletins from the Edge’ for our final collection as a testament to our ‘emotional war correspondence’ from the battlefields against this invisible enemy. The idea for this title arose from a conversation with Winston Plowes, one of the participants on The Great Margin. We’d been chatting on the phone and I’d been explaining the inspiration behind the project. I told Winston that, for me, some of the best writing emerges from the margins. He replied:
When people ask me what it’s like to be a poet I sometimes quote Michael Symmons Roberts who described the poet as ‘a messenger bringing back bulletins from the edge of experience.’ As a writer working in a hospice it’s my privilege to visit one such ‘edge of experience’ and meet the patients and doctors such as Rachel who inspired my piece. It’s a reminder that listening is just as important as talking, that being some sort of journalist of emotions is a valuable role in life and maybe as our worlds become smaller our hearts need to get bigger. (Winston Plowes 2020)
These field notes are the first in a set of two that interact with the underlying research questions and themes addressed through ‘Bulletins from the Edge’. The purpose of the field notes is to trace some of the processes of correspondence between the research team and the writers. The dialogue includes quotes and conversational snippets from key collaborators who have seen the project through to completion, such as writers, theorists and participants. It highlights specific processes and contexts which have exhibited innovation in new modes of sense making, ‘readership’ and interpretation for creative writing practice.
Writing 'to clarify, to interpret, to reinvent'
There are writers who write for fame. And there are writers who write because we need to make sense of the world we live in; writing is a way to clarify, to interpret, to reinvent. We may want our work to be recognized, but that is not the reason we write. We do not write because we must; we always have a choice. We write because language is the way we keep a hold on life. With words we experience our deepest understandings of what it means to be intimate. We communicate to connect, to know the community. (bell hooks)
‘Bulletins from the Edge’ was a collaborative literary project that aimed to provide a forum for people living on the margins to express themselves through writing during the pandemic. The idea arose both from my previous collaborations with other writers from the margins, and from my reflections on my personal experiences of writing from a place of exclusion. Through this project I sought to develop a ‘phenomenology’ of ‘writing from the margins’, in particular with respect to improving understanding of the interpretive processes through which collaborative forms of writing are produced within online forums.
In the introduction to Arts Council England’s ‘Let’s Create’ strategy, Darren Henley explains the difference between creativity and culture, and makes a case for more inclusivity in engagement with the arts. He reflects, in particular, on the role that both creativity and culture play in enabling us to make sense of ourselves and of others:
We believe that creativity and culture are deeply connected, but different. Creativity is the process by which, either individually or with others, we make something new: a work of art, or a reimagining of an existing work. Culture is the result of that creative process: we encounter it in the world, in museums and libraries, theatres and galleries, carnivals and concert halls, festivals and digital spaces […] Taken together, they can help us make sense of ourselves and of each other: they provoke and uplift us; they unite communities; and they bring us joy. If access to either creativity or culture is limited by where people come from or what they do, the whole of society loses out.
Similarly, the rationale for more inclusive approaches to creativity and culture is articulated by Materasso who defends the value of ‘community art’, which he sees as a form of ‘democratic action’ that helps people ‘to make sense of their situation, and to find ways to improve things.’ He concludes that:
Only if people are able, fully, freely and equally, to act as artists can they communicate what is meaningful to them in life. […] Only if they have the right to act as artists can they express and defend their reality and their values on the same basis as others. (A)
Materasso examines a broad range of practices across the arts, drawing in the main from the tradition of community theatre (in particular forum theatre). Yet, to what extent do these largely theatrically-derived concepts translate into practices of writing from the margins? Boal, for instance, devised a method called ‘forum theatre’ in which the 'Spect-actor' could stop the play and step on to the stage in order to change the course of a plot. To what extent is such an approach possible within an online literary community? (B)
‘Bulletins from the Edge’ explored the value of community approaches to writing for people who are isolated and/or living on the fringes of society. It addressed gaps in knowledge about inclusive methodologies for writer development, in particular with respect to calls for a more diverse writing ecology. Delivered throughout 2020, the project also fulfilled a growing public need for opportunities to engage in creativity as a way of ‘making sense’ of the world during a period of global crisis.
Introducing the project, the process and the participants
Although The Great Margin eventually became a project about pandemic writing, I developed the concept of a forum for writing from the margins prior to 2020. In early 2020, due to the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, the need for research into the role of creativity in civic culture, especially for marginalised groups, was further heightened by enforced social distancing. The project was due to launch in March 2020 via a series of in-person events and writing groups. Due to the unforeseen circumstances, I rapidly rethought and reworked my approach, adapting the project to an online setting, and focusing on the emergent theme of isolation.
Another arising issue that the project adapted to was the murder of George Floyd during lockdown, which further magnified experiences of isolation for some participants. Other participants faced personal loss, illness and loneliness. Reflecting on my own experiences before and during the project, I noted that lockdown created an acute sudden loss of connection, and intensified historical memories of exclusion.
Throughout 2020, The Great Margin was facilitated through a series of flash initiatives and partnerships, supporting isolated and marginalised writers. Each sub-project was co-constructed with the intention of emphasising creative interpretation and connection. This offered an opportunity to engage with and explore the possibilities of creative practice as an act of interpretative sense-making. Participants were also invited to take part in a series of online writing groups that I set up in collaboration with other writer facilitators to support the project. However, participation in these groups was not a prerequisite for being included in the final collection.
The project aimed to connect writers from across the United Kingdom by providing them with a platform to express their thoughts and emotions about life in isolation during the pandemic through poetry, prose, spoken word and film. A diverse array of writers participated in the project, who despite ethnic, age, gender and lifestyle differences, were familiar with the experience of writing from the margins, whether that be the result of longstanding circumstances in their lives, or as a consequence of changes brought about by the pandemic.
Throughout the project participants used various forms of literary expression in order to capture their mood. As well as the creation of individual literary pieces of work, contributors were invited to share their writing in a collaborative online event comprising live readings and discussions, followed by the development of a series of accompanying short films.
In the initial phases of the project, writers from across the UK were invited to submit and share creative works in poetry or prose that captured their understanding and feelings about their current situation. With over 500 submissions, and 54 pieces published in written form, we brought together writers from all walks of life.
Toward the end of the project, we ran a virtual showcase, a reading event and a preview of the first film to emerge from the project (showcased at the StoryTown festival 2020). I then worked alongside writers and film editors over a 3-month period to carefully craft a series of 15 poetry films, adapting poetry and prose submitted to The Great Margin. With empathy at its heart, the project was an exploration of community writing and sense-making through the pandemic.
What’s in a word? - Some definitions and key terms
Within creative research, we sometimes use words performatively, to help us to illuminate a way of approaching a subject. Below, I introduce some of the key concepts that have informed my approach and I discuss how I apply them within this project. If you are primarily interested in the participant experiences of the project, then scroll down to the next section.
Throughout these field notes, I use the term expressive language to describe strategies for narrative communication that invoke moods, feelings and ideas about reality. When I talk about ‘writing’ I am referring both to traditional ways of producing narrative texts (i.e. the classical use of pen and paper) and to newer digital forms of writing such as audio-recording and use of the digital ‘camera stylo’ (i.e. the camera-as-pen). (C,D)
I started my academic life as a multimodal ethnographer. A mode is ‘a socially and culturally shaped resource for making meaning. Image, writing, layout, speech, moving images are examples of different modes’ (Q). Multimodality, thus, refers to the ways in which resources for meaning making are combined and expressed in different texts and contexts. My creative practice continues to be informed by the idea that literacy and writing are multimodal. Although there has been a huge amount of research conducted in the field of multimodality, we still tend to approach creative writing (especially within the literary tradition) as if it were a singular mode of production. This project, thus, offers innovation through the establishment of a multimodal forum for interpreting creative writing. (L, N, R)
Ethnography is a way of ‘writing culture’ through a rigorous process of observing and living alongside a community. These days my ethnographic approach is informed by the pedagogical idea of ‘accompanying’ writers and facilitators through a collaborative process of interpretation and development. For further information on how I work alongside writer facilitators, see my field notes on writer development.
Poetry is an approach to expressive writing through which emotions and feelings take on a certain intensity and rhythm. As a mode of writing, poetry can be presented in a variety of ways including verse, spoken word, film or montage. Through poetry, as with other types of creativity, writers and readers can contribute to the making of literary culture. Here, culture is understood as a civic space through which ‘we express our values in the everyday context of life.’ (M)
A literary forum is a workshop, event or platform that facilitates the creation, exploration or sharing of creative writing. A creative writing group (or ‘creative writing workshop’) is a specialist type of literary forum through which a facilitator supports writers to develop or talk about a piece of writing that they have produced. To understand why ‘Bulletins from the Edge’ is innovative, it’s helpful to differentiate ‘literary’ approaches to writing from other more participatory forms of textual production (such as playwriting and scriptwriting). Within theatre and film, for example, there is an assumption from the onset that the writing of a script is the first step in an extensive collaborative process that will culminate in a co-produced piece of work. Within the literary tradition (in spite of proclamations regarding ‘the death of the author’) there is still a strong emphasis on the individuality and subjectivity of the writer. Thus, there is less research and understanding within literary contexts about the collaborative processes of writing. As Paul Hetherington explains:
‘A significant number of creative writers and scholars engage in collaboration but relatively few writers or writer-academics have reflected explicitly on their collaborative processes. As a result, there is something of a gap in the literature about writerly collaboration in creative writing and literary studies, despite the fact that it is now generally accepted that all writers are, at least in a broad sense, engaged in collaborative activities.’ (E)
‘Bulletins from the Edge’ thus addresses a gap in knowledge with respect to our understanding of what Hetherington calls ‘writerly collaboration’ within literary forums and creative writing groups. My research looks closely at the interplay of different writerly subjectivities within an online creative writing community. The assumption that each contributor ‘authors’ a unique perspective on the world, affords an interesting opportunity to explore interpretative exchanges between writers, facilitators, filmmakers and a wider community of readers.
Within this project, I define communities as sites of care through which language is lived, experienced and negotiated. Although place and locality are central to my idea of community, I recognise that communities are not concrete objects. Rather, the concept of community highlights society’s sense of sustainability and continuity, from its longstanding attachments to its aspirations for the future and encompassing relationships of distance. (F, G)
This project was informed by a phenomenological methodology. ‘Phenomenology’ is an interpretive process of investigation that can be used to explore and describe how communities make sense of the world through expressive language. My approach to sense making has been largely influenced by Alfred Schutz and his concept of ‘reciprocity of perspective’. It also intersects with the literary tradition of ‘reading as a writer’ – or, perhaps ‘writing as a reader’. To keep things short, when I describe my methodology I sometimes simply say that ‘I use a writerly process of sensemaking to explore different perceptions of life on the margins.’
Putting this all together: this project entailed a process of listening to writing from the margins within a multimodal literary forum and, subsequently, the sharing back of our writerly readings through the creation of a collection of poetry films. The process enabled a community of writers to come together to interpret and make sense of their individual experiences of isolation. Through this approach we collaboratively explored commonalities and differences in perceptions of marginalisation. (H)
Emerging Themes and Participant Reflections
Participants were not asked to submit their writing in a poetic form, but we found that this was one of the most popular choices. The final collection is, thus, composed almost entirely of poetry films. Reflecting on why poetry was a preferred medium for expression for many pandemic writers, one of the participants commented that poetry enabled her to speak out loud about things that she would shy away from articulating in other contexts.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, one of the key themes to emerge from this project was that of compassion. The Great Margin was conceived as an empathetic endeavour and, throughout the project, community support and compassion featured strongly in the works presented, reflecting a sense of ‘coming together’ and civic-mindedness during the pandemic.
Additionally, a sense of community was strongly conveyed through the act of collective analysis and interpretation itself. Through poetry, the individual perspectives of these writers on the recent past, present and future were interpreted and linked in a shared community:
It was nice to go back to some of these musings at the beginning of lockdown and see how they could be more moulded into something. To put it into The Great Margin context and have other people interpret and represent something personal was a really revealing process too. The creative exchange and the ability to communicate something on different levels, for different people through different mediums is really special. Jess Bunyan, Writer and Great Margin contributor
I like the way the poetry film made from my poem honours my text but interprets my writing in a different way to how I imagined. It was wonderful to be a participant in this collaborative, creative project and it gave me a greater understanding of how meaning is a fluid process open to interpretation. Josephine Corcoran, Writer and Great Margin contributor
Compassion was shared, not only from the writer to those reading their works, but between the contributors themselves and those watching the event online and/or reading the poetry of others in the films. Although it is important to give space to individual expression in the project, there is a shared commonality to the experience of loss.
Through the multilayered, interpretive process of reading and then recording someone else’s poem, I inhabit it. I instinctively think of the ‘why’ behind each line and therefore I put on another world like a coat. It’s still me wearing that world but in bringing my own experiences and empathy, my voice stretches the sleeves so that it fits. Recording my own poems is absolutely different to recording someone else’s work. There is a distance between myself and another poet’s material and with this distance comes a clarity and a freshness, because it’s not muddied with my own craft and editing process. Sophie Dumont, Writer, Spoken Word Artist and Great Margin contributor
When I am making a film based on my own writing I have a clear relationship to the words and can see the images straight away. I know my own vision and where the original inspiration came from. With other people's writing I have to approach it in a slightly different way. I have to interpret the emotions and feelings behind the words and take time to sensitively create something that explores this visually. Trace Harris, Writer, Creative Producer and Great Margin contributor
One of the things I love about poetry is the way both writing and reading it startles your focus. The ordinary becomes extraordinary, ideas and emotions revealed in each twist of a line. I am intrigued by what we choose to include and what we leave out, by the unsaid finding its way through anyway. Perhaps this is why the film poem felt like a gift – it represents someone else hearing my words and dappling them with their own truth. And this for me is the centre of poetry – that it connects. It connects ideas, experiences and people who need never meet but who share a moment of understanding, a yes. Katharine Goda, Writer and Great Margin contributor
There was also a sense in which the project heightened participants’ sense of connection to other people who were important now or in the past. It presented participants with a means to individually and collaboratively express our longing for a pre-Covid life and for a return to a more substantial way of being. Writers touched on grief and loss, and a desire to return to a time before enforced separation. The works they created, and the project as a whole, provided an initial space for these memories to be captured and held, in both a traditional and virtual context. For some participants, the simple acts of writing and filmmaking became a way to hold and capture thought, including memories of others lost before Covid, or as a result of the pandemic.
When people ask me what it’s like to be a poet I sometimes quote Michael Symmons Roberts who described the poet as ‘a messenger bringing back bulletins from the edge of experience.’ As a writer working in a hospice it’s my privilege to visit one such ‘edge of experience’ and meet the patients and doctors such as Rachel who inspired this piece. It’s a reminder that listening is just as important as talking, that being some sort of journalist of emotions is a valuable role in life and maybe as our worlds become smaller our hearts need to get bigger. I have enjoyed the editorial process involved in giving my words a voice via this short film and hope that it helps connect us further and helps us through these off-kilter times. Winston Plowes, Writer and Great Margin contributor
My professional and voluntary work aims to shine a light on inequalities particularly based on gender and ethnicity. Nurtured by my Buddhist faith, I believe each small action makes a difference. Writing is one way I take care of myself amid the hurly-burly of activism, as well as being a tool I use to encourage scrutiny and change. Subitha Baghirathan, Writer and Great Margin contributor
Although a method of existential expression, the immediacy of many of the poems demonstrates that writers were not only able to seek meaning from and make sense of the lockdown imposed by the pandemic, but to grasp fleeting, difficult and sometimes conflicting emotions that can only be described using the barest of words. The aesthetics of poetry, particularly its fragmentation, readily reflects the sense of stillness and ‘suspension’ that many people felt during the lockdown, and echoes widespread feelings of being ‘removed’ or ‘out of sync’ with the reality of the pandemic. In all aspects of the project, there was an emphasis on internal reflection and the act of participation – the very act of writing, of attendance at the virtual event and of the curation of suitable filmic imagery – helped to fill the void imposed by lockdown. In the stillness created by enforced restrictions on our movements, actions and relationships, small details are drawn into focus as shown by the delicacy and complexity of the poems presented and their accompanying films.
As is sometimes seen in moments of crisis, the pandemic has led to the loss of established anchors on a mass scale. This has been accompanied by a potential loss of hope and a struggle to imagine the future. Yet, through creative writing, there is the possibility to reconstruct ourselves. Each step of the project, from poem or prose to imagery to film to final summarisation, allowed an incremental amplification of the writers’ emotions and sense of identity. From stillness there comes a reimagining, both of nature, a theme touched upon in several of the poems and supported by their accompanying films, and of the future self.
We see in some of the works a sharpening of awareness and an urge to create a memory of the future. For some participants the future is a space for hope, the possibility that one day they will return to ‘normal life’. For other participants there is no such hope, the future promises more of the same. The process of writing these films thus offered an opportunity to imagine other selves and lives.
This piece isn’t entirely autobiographical, it grew out of one facet of my personality. The idea of speaking French is meant to be emblematic of an aspirational lifestyle; I certainly do not live a life in which I am required to speak French. I felt that considering a life/lifestyle in such specific detail would indicate the absence of those things in my reality. I hoped to create a sense of longing in the negative space around the words. Zoe Raven, Writer and Great Margin contributor
For others, the future presents a warning of an even worse disaster that could befall us if we do not pay attention to signs of discord that are clearly evident in the present moment. The vivid mental images inspired by the presented works were reinforced by the imagery depicted in the accompanying films. By connecting poetry to film, there is the transformation of abstract thought into tangible emotion.
Are you reading the room? Writing group leaders as interpretants
Another key group of participants in this project were the individuals in our community of writer facilitators who partnered with us to run a series of writing groups throughout 2020 to support the development of new writing. This section briefly outlines some of their reflections on the project.
I love the democratisation of poetry and I see poetry as another discourse. It’s another way that knowledge can filter through to the community. In an age where we are having to redefine notions of the community and in an age where this notion of being human is slowly eroding, poetry is the catalyst for us to have these conversations. Ronnie McGrath, Author and Great Margin workshop group leader
It’s not so much that we teach writing but that we discover and interpret it together. A teacher can introduce a writer to craft and help them develop technically, but what really happens in a writing group, a workshop, a classroom, a Zoom room, is determined by those who are present – the facilitator, or teacher, is only part of the mechanics of the process. It is within the relationship between writers in which writing is shared, interpreted and discussed, that discovery happens. It is where writers create community with each other, where they learn to understand each other and where a deep listening is possible. It is through this process of sharing, listening and reflection that writers mature and we all move forward creatively together. Lucy Sweetman, Reader in Teaching & Learning and Lead Convenor of The Great Margin writing groups
I just wanted to say thank you for organising such a fantastic event this weekend. It was really inspiring and motivating. The events I attended were fantastic and The Great Margin just blew me away. It’s been really nice to get messages from the folks I shared the event with, saying how much they enjoyed the sessions they attended. A friend of mine who’s an educational writer based in Spain tuned into The Great Margin and was really impressed with the whole thing. She was bowled over by the quality of the pieces that were read out.
I thought I would let you know how much we loved it as I know you have all put such a lot of hard work into organising it. The work you have done with The Great Margin has been incredible. What an achievement, and, under such difficult circumstances. What an amazing team! I’m covered in goose pimples… Rebecca Adams, Writer Facilitator and Producer at The Great Margin Showcase
Further Feedback from the Great Margin Event:
'Stunning writing - such a wonderful experience to hear them all. Each one spoke to me in some way... and will stay with me for some time to come. Thank you, amazing writers and readers.' Hillary Smith at The Great Margin Showcase Event
‘In awe [...] totally connecting us in our homes of isolation’
Tish Camp, Writer, at The Great Margin Showcase
'rain shower of beautiful words and feeling’
Jasbinder Bilan, Costa Prize-winning Children’s Writer, at The Great Margin Showcase
’The poetry tonight is tremendous. Feel my heart expanding.’
Grace Palmer, Found of Novel Nights, at The Great Margin Showcase
‘Feeling moved by so much connectivity! A huge sense of shared human experience.’
Judy Darley, Writer, at The Great Margin Showcase
Poetry as technology of interpretation
'Historically poets have often been portrayed as solitary figures who write in isolation evoking their muse to descend and engage them in sensuous reverie' (I)
'Creative writers and artist-academics are typically understood to work in relative isolation, and often to be protective of their ideas and inspiration.' (E)
There remains a prevailing assumption that poetry is a solitary pursuit that does not lend itself to highly participatory methodologies. This research demonstrated that writing and reading poetry need not be a ‘private’ experience and that new technologies can disrupt our relationship to traditional modes of literary interpretation.
The relationship between writing, technology and community was shown to be an important feature of the interpretative experience. Initially, interpretation was facilitated through the creation of an online forum which enabled writers to be an ‘integral part of the research process’. It also involved consideration of literary texts as audiovisual artefacts. As other researchers have noted: ‘The development and mass availability of tools such as mobiles, cameras, multimedia devices and graphic software may encourage researchers to rethink the way we currently conceptualize and disseminate research’ (L). This research took forward that proposition by looking specifically at the application of technology and collaborative practice within a multimodal writing environment.
‘If you think of poetry as this technology, nothing but words, a pen and paper and our thoughts,it’s competing in this highly digital world and yet, it’s still here, it’s this technology that’s still here.
There are so many things we take for granted. This notion of caring, caring for someone else. When we are amputated from a community or from the immediacy of help, it’s phenomenal to those people who go through that and somehow inspire themselves to write.
This phenomenon, this disruptive virus, that’s claimed us as its host, that is with us and continues to be with us. As it tries to pull us apart, I also see a coming together of these very intimate stories about the human condition and how we navigate our way through the moment, through the everyday.
With this virus, the permanency or the illusion of the permanent has been so fractured and so disrupted that we can see possibilities. We can now see the importance of art. We are still fighting that battle for the visibility of art to take the central role and we are seeing that. This fracture, this disruption, has somehow given us agency.’ Ronnie McGrath, Author and Great Margin workshop group leader
These fringes ‘are the stuff poetry is made of’
‘Bulletins from the Edge’ brought to the surface issues around taken-for-granted assumptions about where the value of writing resides – assumptions such as ‘There is little doubt that completed creative writing packaged and marketed into book stores continues to be regarded as more “valuable” than work that is not packaged this way’ (N). The project, thus, advanced knowledge about the value of writing as a process not a product.
Schutz has argued that every artefact is surrounded by ‘fringes’ that connect its past and future elements. Schutz, thus, differentiates between the ‘sign-object’ and a ‘sign-act’, highlighting the difference between the products and the processes of knowledge. He notes that ‘around the nucleus of every work of cultural production is a ‘halo’ of ‘emotional values’ and ‘irrational implications’ that remain ineffable.’ These fringes ‘are the stuff poetry is made of; they are capable of being set to music, but they are not translatable’ (H). When we study the expressive use of language, we are therefore studying the expressive development of an emerging subjective and social life. I discuss at length the insights that this type of approach can bring to our understanding of writing from the margins in a complementary set of field notes, ‘Memory for Futures’.
The ‘tissue of making’
It is generally understood that creative research is a process, not just a product’ or ‘artefact’ (N). However, there is less consensus about how we talk about and make visible this process – i.e. how do we represent this type of research, and how do we do justice to what Rendle-Short calls the ‘tissue of making’? (O) Thus, beyond our core output – a body of films exploring writing from the margins during a time of mass isolation – ‘Bulletins from the Edge’ explores the potential of multi- model sense making as a rigorous process of writing as a reader.
In BathSPAdata and my other field notes I look in greater detail at the phenomenology of writing from the margins; the challenge of working collaboratively across diverse media; power hierarchies around expert/amateur positions; processes of writer development, and approaches to using creativity to shape ‘broader understandings of agency and society in ways that strengthen hegemonic discourses or, on the contrary, offer alternatives to them.’ (P).
I was reminded by several participants (as we explored the process of reading, writing and interpreting life from the margins) of the word ‘Marginalia’ – a term that refers to the scribbles and comments written in the margins of books. These field notes are my ‘marginalia’. They include snippets, and extracts from my diary and are intended as a light introduction to the context surrounding the project. If you are a traditional researcher and/or you are looking for detailed and sustained notes on my research process then you can find fully referenced contextualising notes on BathSPAdata..
(A) Matarasso, F. 2019, A Restless Art: How participation won, and why it matters. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
(B) Boal, A. 1974/2000. Theatre of the Oppressed: New Edition. London: Pluto Press.
(C) Vertov, D. 1984. Kino-Eye: The Writings of Dziga Vertov. (Ed. Michelson, A.) Berkeley: University of California Press.
(D) Astruc, 1948. The Birth of a New Avant Garde Le-Camera Stylo. Originally published in L’Écran française (30 March)
(E) Hetherington, P; Atherton, C, 2020. Writing together: Conjunctive collaboration, scholarship and prose poetry. TEXT: Journal of writing and writing courses 24, 2 (October): 1-18. Available at:
(F) Warburton, D. (ed) 1998. Community and Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan Publications.
(G) Sterling, S. 2001. Sustainable Education: Re-visioning Learning and Change. Totnes: Green Books.
(H) Schutz, A. 1970. On Phenomenology and Social Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(I) Wilson, Anthony; Dymoke, Sue, 2017. Towards a Model of Poetry Writing Development as a Socially Contextualised Process Publication Journal of Writing Research 9 (2), 127-151.
(K) Dawson, P, 2003. Towards a New Poetics in Creative Writing Pedagogy. TEXT: Journal of writing and writing courses, 7, 1 April.
(L) England, K. V. L, 1994. Getting personal: Reflexivity, positionality, and feminist research. The Professional Geographer, 46(1), 80–89, p. 82.
(M) Morin, E. 2005. The Cinema, or The Imaginary Man. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
(N) Graeme Harper, 2014. Creative writing: words as practice-led research. Journal of Visual Arts Practice 7(2), doi: 10.1386/jvap.7.2.161/1, p.168.
(O) Rendle-Short, 2020. Tissue of making in practice-led research: Practi-care, prepositional thinking and a grammar of creativity, TEXT: Journal of writing and writing courses 24, 2 (October): 1-17.
(Q) Kress, Gunther, 2010. Multimodality: A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication. New York: Routledge.
(R) Dicks B, Soyinka B, & Coffey A. 2006. Multimodal ethnography. Qualitative Research. 2006; 6(1): 77-96.